Association between probiotic and yogurt consumption and kidney disease: insights from NHANES.
Yacoub R1, Kaji D2, Patel SN3, Simoes PK4, Busayavalasa D5, Nadkarni GN6, He JC7, Coca SG8, Uribarri J9.
BACKGROUND:Data from experimental animals suggest that probiotic supplements may retard CKD progression. However, the relationship between probiotic use, frequent yogurt consumption (as a natural probiotic source), and kidney parameters have not been evaluated in humans.
FINDINGS:We utilized NHANES data, and analyzed the association of probiotic alone (1999-2012) and yogurt/probiotic (2003-2006) use with albuminuria and eGFR after adjustment for demographic and clinical parameters. Frequent yogurt consumption was defined as thrice or more weekly over the year prior to the interview. Frequent yogurt/probiotic consumers had lower adjusted odds of developing combined outcome (albuminuria and/or eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) compared to infrequent consumers (OR = 0.76; 95 % CI = 0.61-0.94). When evaluated separately, frequent consumers had lower odds of albuminuria and nonsignificant trend towards decreased odds of low eGFR compared to infrequent consumers. In the probiotic cohort, probiotic consumers were found to have a lower adjusted odds of albuminuria compared to nonusers (OR = 0.59; 95 % CI = 0.37-0.94).
CONCLUSION:Frequent yogurt and/or probiotics use is associated with decreased odds of proteinurickidney disease. These hypothesis-generating results warrant further translational studies to further delineate the relationship between yogurt/probiotics with kidney dysfunction, as well as microbiome and dysbiosis as potential mediators.